The People of Gibraltar
1911 - E. R. Kenyon – Almost a Directory - 19th and 20th C  

Dates taken from E.R. Kenyon’s Gibraltar under Moor, Spaniard and Briton. 

1800 – Construction of the actual Garrison Library building was started. It was built on land identified on a 1745 map as “commonly called the Governor’s Garden” and on another of 1743 as “Inhabitant’s Garden”
1801 – Ince promoted to lieutenant 
1802 – The Royal Garrison Regiment was disbanded and Ince served as an assistant engineer
1802 – Governor O’Hara buried in King’s Chapel
1802 – Duke of Kent takes over as Governor


The Duke of Kent - that's the Rock in the background - but he is not on it  ( Henry Edridge )

1802-1803 - A plot of ground near the Nun’s Well was granted to Mr. Ninian Douglas no doubt for the purpose of building a brewery. The Duck of Kent had closed most of the wine houses in town (there were 90 of them) and was keen on being able to secure a supply of wholesome beer for the troops. Whether Douglas Cave was named after Mr. Ninian Douglas is not known 
1802 – The Duke of Kent had reduced the licences for the sale of Malt liquor to three houses – The Three Light Infantrymen in Cooperage Lane, The Three Guns in Cannon Lane and the Halfway House – later the Three Grenadiers – between Southport and South Barracks.
1802 – A mutiny was hatched by soldiers in the Three Guns – two attempts over the Christmas period were suppressed but eventually led to the recall of the Duke
1803 – Garrison Order was issued giving the name of Gunner’s Parade to the square in front of the Artillery Headquarters Offices instead of Governor’s Parade. By 1911 the official name was still Governor’s Parade although both names were in use.
1803- The brewery was already producing beer.
1803 – General Trigge appointed Governor
1804 – Main Garrison Library Building completed from a design by Lieutenant-Colonel Fyers commanding Engineer
1804 – Gibraltar experienced a severe earthquake
1804 - Yellow fever raged carrying off 6000 people out of a population of 15000    
1804 – General Fox appointed Governor of Gibraltar
1805 – A conference took place in the Neutral ground at the request of the commander of the Spanish forces in the Campo Area between British Medical Officers fighting the epidemic in Gibraltar and French doctors travelling through Spain investigating the outbreaks of the malignant fever
1805 - According to Garrison Orders:
The detachment of the Queen’s 13th and 54th Regiments now at Europa and Windmill Hill will occupy Douglas’s Brewery a 4 o’clock this afternoon this converting the place into Brewery Barracks

The Brewery Barracks is the larger building on the right  (Unknown )

1805 – 180 Spanish military raiders captured a subaltern and four soldiers from the Devil’s Tower guard. General Castaños the Spanish Commander of the Campo Area returned the men
1805 – Colonel Fyers and his family of 14  encamped on the extreme southern flat, sometime called “Little E” below Deadman’s Hole to avoid the Yellow fever epidemic


Colonel  William Fyers   ( Early 19th century - John Hoppner )

1805 – Governor’s Cottage was built as a summer residence for the General Commanding the Garrison almost certainly as a response to the yellow fever epidemic – the first occupant was General Fox
1805 – A member of the family who lived in “Arengo’s Palace” was nominated as Spanish Vice-Consul. This would have been Juan Arengo – one of my great great etc grandfathers
1808 - General Castaños officially moved his headquarters from San Roque to Algeciras
1808-1812 – Victualling Yard at Rosia was built
1810 – The fortifications known as the Spanish Lines were destroyed during the Peninsular War. The Spanish Commander General Castaños feared they might fall into French hands and asked for British. Help. The Lines were blown over a period of several months by a detachment of about 800 Military Artificers under the command of Captain G. J. Harding R.E. Some of the materials from the forts were used in fortifications and buildings in Gibraltar including the buildings behind the fountain in Governor’s Parade.
 The British also helped destroy all the Spanish works and barracks round the Bay including the Batteries of Punta Mala, Torre del Mirador, (close to the river Guadaranque) and Cabrita Point. They were assisted by a Portuguese squadron. 


Plan for the Spanish Lines as ordered by  Philip V  (1730 -Isidro Próspero de Verboom )

1810 - A French party that had come down from San Roque into Campamento were driven off by a Spanish Cavalry detachment in Gibraltar
1810 – The Spanish leader General Ballesteros was attacked by the French commander Soult while defending the Castle at Jimena. Pretending flight he deceived the enemy and routed him among the crags of the River Hosgarganta and San Roque, Soult was furious and sent Oudinot with 10 000 men but Ballesteros eluded him and took refuge in Gibraltar
1811 – Footbridge built across Europa pass from Europa Pass Barracks to Buenavista Barracks  
1811 – Eighteen people from San Roque who had taken refuge in Catalan Bay from French troops occupying San Roque were killed when a large boulder crashed into the village. The boulder ended up on the southern edge of the beach. Catalan Bay locals gave it the name of la Mamela. It was shaped like a woman's breast. 
1812 – Four men of the R.A and an engineer were employed in Isla Verde off Algeciras to repair its defences
1812 – Scud Hill is referred to for the first time – apparently by General Don but Kenyon gives no reference 
1813 – A village of about 100 huts was set up in the Neutral Ground on the orders of General Don. A hundred years later they formed part of the permanent hutment in North Front
1813-1818 – A Hospital was built on Windmill Hill. This was in addition to the Naval Hospital. It would have space for 40 patients with quarters for the Surgeon, Assistant-Surgeon and all hospital staff
1814 – General George Don arrived as Governor
1814 – According to Fraser’s MS: 
. . . .tents were furnished for those who could not afford to erect sheds and I estimate the population sent to the isthmus at 3000.
These and the hutment were a consequence of the repeating yellow fever epidemics at the time 
1815 – General Don promoted a scheme for laying out an Alameda in the “Red Sands”
1816 – Alameda Gardens opened to the public
1816 – The Civil Hospital constructed on the site of the ruins of the Blue Barracks – once the site of the Spanish monastery and hospital of San Juan de Dios, was opened – it was run under civil management    
1816 – The Naval Hospital was lent to the Military authorities to supplement their Windmill Hill Hospital
1817 – The commission for the revision and settlement of titles were appointed
1818 – The Exchange was opened - The place was officially known as the Exchange and Commercial Library


The Exchange and Commercial Library   (1828 – Filippo Benucci )

1821 – Martin’s Cave discovered by a soldier of the same name
1821 - The titles under which property was held – at least up to 1911- and the records of the Crown Lands Office as settled by the 1817 commission took effect this year
1823 – Chatham’s Counterguard – so named in honour of the Governor at the time, the second Earl of Chatham – was constructed in order to enclose within the fortifications more grounds which were to be used as markets
1825 – The foundation stone of the Holy Trinity Church was laid    
1828 – Another epidemic of yellow fever – three battalions besides artillery and engineers were encamped in Windmill Hill 
1828 – A building known as “Bleak House” was built at Europa as a sanatorium for officers. As it proved more satisfactory and cheaper to send the invalids back home the place lay empty for years – hence the name   


Bleak House ( Unknown )

1838 – The foundation stone of the Lighthouse at Europa Point was laid by the Governor - Lieutenant-General Sir Alexander Woodford
1829 – The Royal Gibraltar Yacht Club founded    
1832 – Garrison Orders mentions a place called “Scud Lane”
1832 – The Holy Trinity Church completed
1832 – General Don died and was buried in the Holy Trinity Church
1833 – Building at south end of the Anglican Cathedral Gardens used as an Officers Mess burned down
1835 – Society formed for scientific research and discussion – but faded away almost immediately
1835 - Sir Alexander Woodford succeeded General Don as acting Governor
Kenyon got this slightly wrong I think. General Don was acting Governor for the real one the Duke of Kent from 1814 to 1820. The Earl of Chatham took over as real Governor in 1820 and remained so until 1835. He left the Rock in 1825, however, and General Don resumed his as acting governor until 1831. He died in 1832. Don was succeeded by Sir William Houston who was also acting on behalf of the Earl of Chatham. In 1835 Houston was succeeded as acting governor by Sir Alexander Woodford – but as nobody took the place of Chatham, Woodford became a proper Governor of Gibraltar in 1836. 
1839 - The post of “acting” or lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar was abolished
1838 – Building at south end of the Anglican Cathedral Gardens now rebuilt as Fortress Headquarters occupied by Prince George of Cambridge
1841 – Sir J. Jones R.E. recommended the construction of a 10 gun battery on the site of the Chief Engineer’s Garden
1842 – Convict establishment was set up with the arrival of 200 convicts on board a hulk for the purpose of employing them on public works    
1842 – Prince Albert Front was constructed
1844 - The Franciscan Arms - two arms nailed to the cross – found in the Convent was plastered over
1844 - Captain G. J. Harding became the commanding officer of the R.E. on the Rock
1845 – Lighthouse keeper’s quarters built near lighthouse
1845 – Elliott’s Battery was constructed
1846 – The Mount was considerably altered 
1846 – Wellington Front was constructed
1848 – A note in the minute-book of the Gibraltar Scientific Society i the Garrison Library reads:
Presented a Human Skull from Forbes’ Quarry, North Front by Secretary
The skull proved to be that of a Neanderthal female
1851 – The South Mole extended by about a quarter of a mile in length
1852 - Foundation stone of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church was laid


St Andrews

1856 – Stone Jetty at Bayside Barrier was opened
1858 – Four Russian guns captured in the Crimea arrived in Gibraltar. In 1911 all four were placed in the Alameda
1859 – Prince of Wales Battery extended and commemorated by a memorial stone laid by King Edward VII during a brief visit
1863 – Convent re-fronted with red brick facade
1858 – A Roman Catholic College for Boys was opened in a building in the New Mole Parade
I think this one was called St Bernard’s College for Boys
1865 – The Roman Catholic College for Boys moved to new premises built on Europa Main Road


1867 – New wing added to Garrison Library
1870 – Rock fall destroyed the road from the North Front to Catalan Bay
1872 – The Roman Catholic College for Boys proved unsuccessful and was closed. Kenyon gives no date. However, according to local historian Dorothy Prior the Roman Catholic Bishop of Gibraltar – Dr Scandella – had asked the Holy Ghost Fathers who were having a rough time in Portugal during  the anti-clerical upheavals of the late 19th century in that country to come to Gibraltar and teach at the school. Spain was going through similar anti-clerical disturbances and the idea was that the school would attract Spanish Students. It didn’t, the Fathers left the Rock and the School closed and St Bernards School moved back to Rosia 
1872 – Water Fountain removed from Commercial Square
1872 - The War Department transferred the Cemetery to a Board
1875 – The only public water supply in Gibraltar  was rain water collected on a small natural rock collecting area on the west side of the Rock and stored in the Moorish Castle Reservoir  with a capacity of 1 ¼ million gallons capacity. This supply only allowed a ration of one quart per head per day in the summer. One quart of brackish water was also available mainly from a shallow well near the sea at North Front.
1875 – Convict Establishment closed. Buildings used by convicts were taken over by the Admiralty
1875 – Rock fall caused by violent rain gutted the church and buried some barrack outbuildings 
1875 – Racecourse reconstructed    
1876 – Wells for brackish water sunk in isthmus
1876 – Water pumping station erected on isthmus
1877-1879 – Farringdon Battery was constructed –by 1911 it was obsolete
1880 – Slaughter house built on south eastern side of the Isthmus   
1880 - The Civil Hospital was enlarged
1880c – Victoria Gardens converted from vegetable to flower gardens cultivated by troops quartered in adjacent hutments
1883-1885 – Armoury building converted into Garrison Recreation Rooms
1885 – First official complaint about the apes was recorded that year. The senior Naval Officer at the Mount was upset that a pack of over sixty apes were stealing fruit from the trees, tearing stones from the wall and breaking down wooden railings and roof gutters
1885 – Zobeir Pasha the great slave-dealer of the Soudan and whose son Sulieman was executed under Gordon’s orders by his lieutenant Gessie, when he revolted was deported to Gibraltar and was interned in the Governor’s Cottage
1885 – The Governor Sir John Adye removed the restriction that forbad civilians to be in the streets fter midnight without permit
1886 – Water Fountain originally in Commercial Square now re-erected “in its  . . position (in 1911)"
1887 – The Naval Officer at the Mount complained again about the damage caused by the apes and claimed £57 as the cost for repairs
1887 - Zobeir Pasha was released and allowed to return to Cairo
1887 – Shots fired from HMS Wasp succeeded in hitting O’Hara’s Tower
1888 – The Admiralty requested that a watchman should be employed to chase the apes from the Mount 
1888-1889 – Royal Engineers Officers Mess established in a block of buildings on the west side of Cornwall’s Parade then known as Greenmarket Street


Royal Engineers Officers’ Mess in Cornwall’s Parade  (1890 )

1889 – The Civil Hospital was converted by Ordinance into a Government institution under the title of “Colonial Hospital”
1891 – The first section of the Algeciras-Bobadilla Railway line was completed    
1891 – A portion of the Naval Hospital usually used by the military authorities was now reserved for the Navy
1891 – The Sanitary Commissioners – a body which was changed with many of the duties of a municipal authority but with a majority of members selected by the Governor – was reorganised 
1891 – An emigrant ship the Utopia collided with HMS Anson and sank within a few minutes. 551 people were drowned, 130 buried in North Front    
1892 – The authorities agreed to shoot three apes to see if this reduced the problems being caused by the animals raiding the Mount
1892 – The Algeciras-Bobadilla Railway line completed.
1893 – The construction of the modern harbour - and its accompanying great extension of the Dockyard - was commenced by extending the South Mole by 300 ft
1894 – Sewage Pumping Station constructed
1894 – “Stone centinel box” discovered near lighthouse area with a leaden coffin under the floor    
1895 – Central Electrical Power Station constructed
1896-1896 – The Municipal authorities constructed additional catchment areas of about 3 ½ acres on the western side of the Rock and an additional natural rock-water catchment of 11 ½ acres was cemented at Rock Gun and Green’s Lodge
1898-1891 – Four reservoirs fifty feet deep (Nos 1 to 4 ) of 1 ¼ million gallons each were constructed on the eastern sand slopes 
1898 – The sewage system based on the Parliamentary report of 1893-1894 was completed
1899 – Mediterranean Rowing Club founded


The Mediterranean  Rowing Clubhouse ( 1910 )

1901 – The 79th German Infantry (Hanoverian) who fought with the allied armies during the Peninsular War as the King’s German Legion was granted the privilege of wearing the word Gibraltar on the right sleeve 
1901 – An extensive scheme for an improved water supply was inaugurated by the Sanitary Commissioners the main idea being the construction of collecting areas and reservoirs. It was hoped that the system would replace that of the distribution of water via butts, casks and buckets and of storage in numerous private underground cisterns
1902 – The great “Mediterranean Cave” was discovered in the cause of Admiralty Quarrying operations – it contains stalactites and stalagmites in a great variety of forms and sizes
1903 – An artificial Catchment area of 10 acres was constructed on the eastern sand slopes
1903 – A mass of Rock weighing about 100 tons killed five cows and a pony and partly buried a young woman and a man without seriously injuring them
1903 - The Colonial Government transferred its electric lighting undertaking to the Sanitary Commission – by 1911 the system had grown considerably but by 1911 is was not as yet a financial success
1904 – Revenue offices constructed on Commercial Wharf
1904 – Bonded Stores constructed on Commercial Wharf
1905 – Commander Blunt recovered two “Patteraras” or “Perriers” from the remains of a sunken ship believed to have been one of the Spanish fleet sunk during the 1607 Battle of Gibraltar. In one of the guns there was still a stone shot and a charge of powder
1906 – Budgett Meakin – an authority on Moorish subjects wrote an article in the Gibraltar Chronicle extolling the uniqueness of the Moorish Baths in Gibraltar:
“Except for the Alhambra there is nothing in Spain to compare with it; and in Morocco such baths may not be entered by Nazarenes or Jews, so that its interest is exceptional”
1907 – A fissure was discovered running from Levant Cave to below Spur Battery which is described as having some of the finest stalactites on the Rock
1908 - Commander Blunt presented his two “Patteraras” or “Perriers” to the Garrison Library
1908 – Name of the convent changed to Government House at the request of King Edward VII
1908 – Moorish Bath cleared of rubble and opened to view
1908 – Chapel of Our Lady of Europa cleared of rubbish after having been used as store room and a modern partition removed so that it now consisted of only one room
1910 – Fortress Order forbidding the feeding of apes by occupants of barracks and quarters
1910 – A large boulder crashed through one of the artillery tents set up in Catalan Bay – the occupants managed to get away in time
1911 – In his chapter on the caves of Gibraltar, Kenyon mentions and in some cases describes the following caves:
Monkey’s Cave - 100 ft up from the sea cliffs north of Governor’s Cottage
Beefsteak Cave – In the cliff just above the corner of Europa Pass
Genista Cave No 4 – Nearly over the stables of Governor’s Cottage
Martin’s Cave - About 600 ft above sea level
Fig-tree Cave – Also about 600 ft above sea level
Poca Roca – about 700 ft above sea level
St Michael’s Cave – an inland cave
Genista 1, 2, and 3 – On the Windmill Hill Plateau
Glen Rocky Cave
Mediterranean Cave  
Levant Cave
Leonora’s Cave
1912 - Bandstand erected on the west side of the Alameda Parade Ground
1912 – Alameda promenade changed to Kingsway in memory of King Edward VII


Bandstand on the west side of the Alameda Parade Ground (Early 20th century )

1912-1917 - Booking Office of Algeciras Ferry erected in Commercial Wharf
1912-1917 – Commercial Mole incorporating the Devil’s Tongue constructed under Admiralty supervision
1912-1917 - Glacis Road and Smith Dorrien Avenue constructed
1912-1917 - Corral Road constructed to enable stones to be conveyed from North Front Quarries for the construction of the Commercial Wharf
1915 – No 5 reservoir holding 2,000 000 gallons of water was constructed 
1915 – Miles Promenade – el Buleva Hebreo – constructed by order of Sir Herbert Miles
1915-1916 – Sir Herbert Miles Road constructed as a single track
1918 – Sir Herbert Miles Road widened
1919 – There were complaints from residents at Crutchett’s Ramp about bothersome apes.
1919 – Governor reduces number of apes from 24 to 10
1920 – Victoria Gardens were transferred to City Council
1920 – Naval Sports Grounds, Naval Officers’ Pavilion and Sports Grounds were founded
1921 – El Buleva de las Palmeras – known officially as the Esplanade – was constructed



A very recently constructed Esplande - Buleva de las Palmeras- shown on the left hand corner of the photo overlooking an equally new Naval Officers Pavilion Sports ground – King’s Bastion Generating Station with chimney on the left

1921 – Fortress Order prohibiting feeding of apes republished
1921 - Revenue offices constructed on Commercial Wharf (See 1904)
1921 – Bonded Stores extended on Commercial Wharf
1921 – Police, Port and Shipping Offices erected in Commercial Wharf
1922 – Cross of Sacrifice WWI memorial erected in North Front
1922 – Bayside Barrier demolished
1922 – The “Giralda” bridge constructed over Corral Road
1922-1923 – American War Memorial erected
1922-1926 – Causeway widened
1924 – The Naval Hospital was converted into quarters for married naval officers
1925 - Footbridge across Europa pass from Europa Pass Barracks to Buenavista Barracks demolished
1925 – Block of buildings on the west side of Cornwall’s Parade having previously been occupied by the Royal Engineers as their Officers Mess became the Masonic Institute
1926 – Another Neanderthal skull was discovered in a rock shelter near Devil’s Tower by Miss D.A.E. Garrod    
1927 – Waterport Gates were demolished    
1929 – Revenue and Police Station built at Four Corners
1929 – Right-hand drive was instituted
1929 – New Market was opened
1929 - 1931 – Pumping station on isthmus renovated
1930 – Gibraltar Museum opened thanks to the efforts of Sir Alexander Godlley Governor at the time. It occupied a building known as Ordnance House - because it had been the residence of the senior ordnance officer – and part of another officer’s quarters which fronted Bomb House Lane. It was selected because underneath are the remains of a Moorish Bath.    Adjacent to it is Bomb House the residence of the senior Medical Officer
1930 – Erection by City Council of tenement buildings adjacent to Flat Bastion
1930 - Montagu Sea-Bathing Pavilion erected
1930-1931 – Rock Hotel built



Rock Hotel postcard

1931 – Museum Ordinance passed to prevent as far as possible the avoidable destruction of the historic monuments of the Fortress. 
 1932-1936 – Three more water reservoirs each holding 1,000 000 gallons were constructed. The eight reservoirs and the one at Moorish Castle hold a total of 11,700 000 gallons of water
1934-1935 - Fresh water found at borings in North Front by City engineer
1935 – Section of Sir Herbert Miles Road from City Council Destructor and road to Catalan Bay further widened
1935 – Extension to Rock Hotel built
1936 –Wooden bridge built across Europa pass from Europa Pass Barracks to Buenavista Barracks  



Metal bridges across Europa Pass to Buenavista Barracks    ( Late 19th century - G.W. Wilson )

1937 – On south side of Kingsway a new Central Fire Station was built on the site created by the removal of art of the obsolete Victoria Battery 


1911 - E. R. Kenyon - A Needle in the Haystack (See LINK)     
1911 - E. R. Kenyon - Almost a Directory - BC to end 18th Century (See LINK)     
1911 - E. R. Kenyon - Illustrations (See LINK)