The People of Gibraltar
1894 - Bradshaw’s Gibraltar - Troops of Goats

The Rock from Devil’s Tongue   ( A contemporary print )
Population (1891), 25,775, inclusive of the garrison (nearly 6,000). Hotels – Royal; Europa - The Club House was some time the residence of the Duke of Connaught. Accommodation for strangers is limited lodgings scarce, and rather dear. The promontory, fortress, town, and Bay of Gibraltar, situated on the Spanish side of the Strait, belong to Britain. . . . 

(1879 – Gibraltar Directory )

New Mole Parade – the Hotel Europa’s address – but I cannot identify it on this photograph

Connaught House once the Club House Hotel was the private property of the Larios family (see LINK) when this photo was taken – the decorations are in honour of the visit of the Prince of Wales visit in 1876

What followed was a lengthy and rather tedious description of the geography of Gibraltar and a potted history of the place beginning with the taking of the Rock by Tarik (see LINK) in 711. 
It was taken by Tarik, the Moor, in 711, who crowned a castle on the shoulder of the rock called Gibel Tarlk (the mountain of Tarik); whence its present name is derived. Traces of this castle may still be seen.
Modern research suggests that he never built a castle on the Rock and that the present building is of a later date. (See LINK

Bradshaw’s historical summary continues with Spaniards taking over in the fourteenth century, (see LINK)  then back in Moorish hands a few years later (see LINK)  and then taken again the Spaniards in 1462. (See LINK) Then Rooke’s exploits in 1704 (see LINK) and history came to an end with the Great Siege of 1783. (See LINK) Gibraltar was now well and truly a British possession. 

The curious discovery of animal and human bones among the fissures of the Rock is given a rare mention (see LINK) as are the various caves of which only St Michael’s is named. A confused description of the place then follows.
The city is provided with a civil police, but scarcely any means are taken to prevent confusion upon the arrival and departure of the steamers. The Spanish Lines, which extend across the isthmus, are defended by two forts, the principal of which is called St. Philip. The space between these lines and the foot of the rock is called the Neutral Ground and it is here that the Lazaretto is situated.
The Spanish Lines – known in Spain as La Línea de la Contravalación – with the forts of San Felipe on the west and Santa Barbara on the East - was destroyed in 1810 during the Peninsular War. (See LINK) Any tourist visiting the area in the late 19th century would have only seen an unimpressive ruined site.

The Neutral Ground was theoretically the area between the lines and the foot of the Rock – or at any rate that was the wording of the Treat of Utrecht (see LINK) as interpreted by Spain. In actual fact the British authorities had pushed the boundary a considerable distance north of the face of the Rock making use of it for various purposes much to the dismay of the Spaniards who were unable to respond appropriately.

The buildings on the left are workshops and fishermen huts and on the right the curve of a rudimentary horse- racing course – the Lazaretto would have been out of sight on the bottom left of the photo below the Rock – A series of allotments in the middle of the photograph after which is the Neutral Ground Proper – The town in the distance is La Línea   ( Late 19th century )
Sights - Fortifications: magnificent view from the signal tower and batteries; harbour; markets, with great variety of fish; extensive promenades; military prison and convict establishment.(see LINK)  Good English and Foreign Library, called the garrison library, (see LINK) in Governor's Parade. (See LINK) It contains upwards of 45,000 volumes. English newspapers and periodicals are also taken in. The building comprises two suites of handsome rooms, to which strangers are admitted by a subscriber, towards whom the greatest liberality is always shown. 

The Garrison Library in Governor's Parade - Its "liberality" was not shown to everybody unfortunately. The locals for one were never allowed in    (late 19th century ) 
The lions of the place are the monkeys, which are held in great respect . . . The highest points are the Signal Tower, and O'Hara's Tower.(See LINK)  Under this, on the east side of the rock, is a remarkable sloping bank of sand, 600 feet above sea at the upper edge, blown up by the wind.  
The Alameda (see LINK) is one of the principal attractions of the place, as it is here that all the various types of nationality, in which the Rock abounds, may be seen in picturesque variety. It is a large public promenade laid out with gardens . . . the regimental bands play in the parade ground, almost every evening.

Fiesta night in the Alameda    ( Early 20th century – The Graphic Magazine )
. . .  The market, near Commercial Square, not far from the Royal Hotel, is also well worth an early morning visit. Notice the troops of goats driven round to be milked at the door of the customer. Many Moors are seen in the streets, and their noisy Arabic frequently rises above the sonorous and stately Spanish, and the less striking English tongues.

Goat  “milked at the door of the customer”   ( 1907 - Robert Urie Jacob ) (See LINK)
Public worship at the Cathedral on Sundays, twice at the King's Chapel, three times; and at the South twice. There are also a Roman Catholic Church, a Presbyterian, and other chapels, and a Synagogue.  
Charges for Landing and Embarking. The published tariff fixes the charges for going to or from the landing place to or from any place in the Bay, notwithstanding which passengers who are charged the tariff rate may consider themselves fortunate. The demand usually varies from 1 dollar to 2 dollars each, and if the slightest wind blows, 6 and even 10 dollars have been demanded and paid. There is no tariff for cabs, charges for which are high. 
Post Office - A mail is made up daily, for England, via Madrid, Paris etc. Letters must be posted by 10 45 a.m. Since the opening of the line from Algeciras to Ronda and Bobadilla, (see LINK) the service has been greatly accelerated, and letters to London now take less than 4 days, in place of 5 days as formerly. 
Foreigners cannot reside on the Rock without a consul or surety becoming responsible for them, but little difficulty is occasioned. The magistrates, moreover, grant permits of from 10 to 20 days. Shooting may be had in the vicinity of Gibraltar.  
The gates are shut at from 5 to 15 minutes after the evening gun has been fired; second gun, 8.30 to 9 p.m. Martial law is in force. Several Consuls reside here; also an Agent to Lloyd's, and Agents to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. There are a resident Senior Officer of the Royal Navy, and a Captain of the Port. 
Works on the Rock: Drinkwater’s “Siege of Gibraltar:" (See LINK) “The Mediterranean", by Admiral Smyth. . . . and Kelzart’s (Kelaart’s) (see LINK) "Flora Calpensis." 
Money. The coinage is Spanish, based on standard gold piece of 25 pesetas, called Alphonso, worth about a sovereign. A peseta = 100 céntimos = 9½d. English. Gold of 20 pesetas = 15s 10p nearly; silver of 5 pesetas= 3s.11½ d: bronze of 10 céntimos = 1d. Dollars were formerly current, and accounts were kept in imaginary reals and cuartos. English coins are current.
In other words paying for anything on the Rock must have been an absolute nightmare an ideal arrangement for the many local shop-owners and hoteliers to bamboozle and swindle the casual tourist.
A tunnel under the Straits has been projected, from Gibraltar to Ceuta and Tangier, but there seems little likelihood of its being made. It would be 9 miles long, with a decline of 1 in 100 to the deepest part, which would be 3,300 feet down. Estimated cost, four millions. The high mountain on the African coast, which corresponds to the Rock of Gibraltar, and forms the other Pillar of Hercules (Mons Abyla), is called Jibel Musa. (See LINK
The idea of connecting both continents with a tunnel is not new. The Scientific American edition of December 1899 carried an article on The Proposed Tunnel under the Straits of Gibraltar. Other proposals such as a Spanish one in 1930 - El Tunel del Estrecho de Gibraltar - continued to surface over the years. None of them came to anything. 

Proposal for a floating tunnel   ( 1928c - Fernando Gallego Herrera )

Excursions,-The land route to Gibraltar is by Chiclana, Venta de Vejer, Venta de Ojeu, and Los Barrios; or by Chiclana, Venta de Vejer, Tarifa, and Algeciras.

See also: 1866 -Bradshaw's Gibraltar – As Bad as Any