The People of Gibraltar
1712 - Richard Kane’s Map of Gibraltar - The Captions

I have divided the map divided into nine sections with the original identification numbers and text replaced with more visible ones. The plan is also supposed to show all proposed defensive fortifications coloured in yellow, but this is not noticeable in my copy. I have nevertheless tried to identify some of the larger structures wherever possible. 

4. Two Old Windmills wherein there’s kept an advanced Guard
5. An Old Tower call’d The Devil’s Tower
6. This is a Morass in y’e winter but dry firm ground in the summer
7. Walls built at the foot of the Mountain. These are now almost ruined
8. Batteries whereupon are mounted guns and a mortar. These are commonly called Willis’s Batteries

This section covers the sandy area of the neck of the isthmus. It is often referred to on older Spanish texts as “las arenas blancas” to distinguish it from “los arenales Colorados” - the red sands - found further south and on which the town is built. The most northern tower - bottom left - was known as “la Torre Quebrada” the one next to it “la Torre del Molino”. Devil’s Tower was an English translation of at least one of it’s Spanish names, “la Torre del Diablo”’

1727 - Antonio de Montaigu de la Perille

Fortifications running across the isthmus from east to west - shown lightly outlined - were presumably proposed by Kane. They were never built. Willis’s Batteries were named after an R.A officer Captain Willis who made a name for himself during the twelfth Siege of Gibraltar. They were originally built by the Spaniards and known as “Reducto de San JoaquĆ­n”. The ruined walls were possibly the old Spanish “Muralla de San Juan” which ran from “Puerta de Tierra” to the bottom of the Round Tower”. 

13. The Round Tower
14. It’s (Round Tower) Line of Communication

These two caption numbers seem to be missing on my copy of the map. I have hopefully added them in the right place. The round tower was referred to as “el Pastel” by the Spaniards. It was demolished in the early 18th c during British improvements to the Northern defences.

A failed French assault against the RoundTower defended by British troops1. The Town
3. The Bay
6. This is a Morass in y’e winter but dry firm ground in the summer
9. The Catalan Guard
11. The Old Moorish Castle. The greater part of this is now a heap of ruins.

Moorish Castle (1830s - William Mein Smith )

12. A Line with a Glacis before it to secure the side of the Mountain. This place is called the Breach
14. It’s (Round Tower) Line of Communication
15. A Tenad? Lately demolished
16. The Old Glacis
17. The New Glacis – under this there are casemates made that will contain 500 men
18. The North Bastion
19. The Queen’s Battery
20. Princess Battery of 2 guns
21. Princess Battery of 4 guns
22. The Land Port
23. The Bomb Battery where there are mortars
24. The Old Magazine
25. The Water Port
26. The Old Mole whereon there may be mounted 46 pieces of cannon

The Catalan Guard refers to a battery used during the 12th Siege by Catalan militia that had taken part in the 1704 capture of the Rock. 


The Moorish Castle ruins probably refer mostly to the destruction of the walls of its precinct during the same siege rather than the Castle itself. The entire Old Mole and Water Port would later be known by the single name of the Devil’s Tongue – or just as the Old Mole. Waterport Gate is neither labelled nor numbered on the plan and is simply identified as an archway.

2. The Mountain
10. A Line to the Castle
33. A Ruin’d Redoubt
34. The Walls at Middle Hill. 
35. This put made up to for the more easy relief of y’e guard kept there

1. The Town
2. The Mountain
27. Four Gun Battery
28. The Parade
29. The Cistern (The Fountain)

The fountain (1771- Thomas James)

30. The Franciscan Gardens – Later Convent Gardens 
31. Governor’s Garden
32. Hospital with its garden
33. A Ruin’d Redoubt
34.The Walls at Middle Hill. 
48. The Wall built along the seaside to prevent landing.

No 1, the town actually follows the line taken by “Calle Real” or Main Street. The “Parade” would become John Mackintosh Square. The “Cistern” refers to the early 17th century aqueduct fountain head which remained in use at the north west corner of the Parade for many years. The Franciscan Gardens would become part of the Convent, the Governor’s residence. The Governor’s Gardens are possibly those once found behind the Garrison Library building. The hospital is that of San de Dios, later a barracks and later still a hospital. The No.48 Wall of Islamic origins, came to be known as the Line Wall.
I can’t find any No.27 to go with the 4 Gun Battery caption.

1. The Town (Main Street)
36. The Signal House and ye path up to it
37. The path up to it (Signal House)
38. A Line begun by Moors never finished
39. Charles V Wall, this is very high, well built and in good condition
40. The Flat Bastion
41. The South Bastion where are mounted pieces of Cannon
42. The South Gate
43. The Eight Gun Battery
44. The Aqueduct

The Signal House or Signal station known to the Spanish as “el Hacho”. The “Line” or wall to the north of Charles V’s is not of “Moorish” origins but Spanish and is today known as Philip V’s Wall.  Flat and South Bastions were previously known as the “Baluartes de Santiago” and “del Rosario” respectively. South gate entrance to town from the south through Charles V Gate is South Port Gate. The 17th century aqueduct carried water into town an on to the fountain mentioned previously.

45. The New Chappell
48. The Wall built along the seaside to prevent landing (Line Wall)
54. St Michael’s Cave. The enemy did try the last siege passed with difficulty and and hazard at Middle Hill and Salto Garrobo. Those that passed at this last place had themselves two days in this cave which is large enough to contain 1000 men* From the French caption
55. A cave that will contain 250 Men

The New Chappell occupies the area where I would have expected to have found “La Capilla de San Juan el Verde”. It certainly was anything but new. Also, I can’t find any No. 55 to go with the 250-man cave caption.

46. The Fort of the New Mole wherein are mounted 21 pieces of Cannon
47. The New Mole wherein are 2 pieces
48. The Wall built along the seaside to prevent landing
49. The Breach of Rosea 

La Caleta de San Juan el Verde would soon be known to the British as Rosia Bay. The breach of “Rosea” probably refers to “Rosia” but appears to be too far to the south. Also I cannot decipher the names of the other two bays.

50. A Traverse, this was built with a design to keep the enemy here should they land to ye southward of it, but it will not answer this end for men can easily pass in several places to the right and left of it

As regards the text, “La Calita de los Remedios” would become Camp Bay, “la Caleta del Laudero”, little Bay.

46. The Fort of the New Mole wherein are mounted 21 pieces of Cannon (?)
51. A tower to the most southern point of Europa
52. A guard house built on a rock hanging over ye sea to discover any boats should approach or row along ye shore to the northward or southward of this place
53. A wall built to stop an enemy that should creep along the Eastern side of ye Mountain in order to possess themselves of this end of it, this wall is now of no use as the Rocks are blown away at Salto Garrobo the only place where it was possible for men to pass

The caption for No.46 is obviously incorrect. As regards the texted captions, I have only come across la Torre del Negrillo in one other map but have no idea what it refers to. Punta Radadera – if I have interpreted the wring correctly - I have not come across before. As regards “Buffadero” – or “Bufadero” – A British battery with the same name once existed on Windmill Hill – as does a Cave. It has been suggested that the name comes from a small village known as “Bufido”. 

The final entry is possibly a reference to the attempt by the Gibraltarian Simon Susarte to lead enemy forces up the "impossible" eastern cliffs of the Rock.

1712 - Richard Kane's Map of Gibraltar - Intro