A fortress to be governed – a somewhat unrealistic view from Spain (1886 - Harry Millson Hunt )
Succession of Governors, Lieut. Governors, and Commandants of the Fortress Of Gibraltar,
Since The Capture In 1704
Prince of Hesse . . . 1704
Maj. Gen. Ramos, Governor . . . 1705
Col. Elliott, Governor . . . 1706
Gen. Stanwix . . . 1711
Col. Congreve . . . 1713
Col. Cotton . . . 1716
Maj. Battereau . . .1718
Maj. Hetherington . . .1719
Col. Kane . . . 1720
Lord Portmore, Governor . . . 1721
Col. Hargrave, Commandant . . . 1722
Gen. Clayton . . . 1728
Gen. Sabine, Governor . . . 1730
Gen. Columbine . . . 1730
. . . . . . . . .
Gen. Drummond, Commandant . . . 1806
Sir Hew Dalrymple, Commandant . . . 1806
Gen. Drummond, Commandant . . . 1808
Sir J. Cradock, Commandant. . .1809
Gen. Campbell, Lieut. Governor . . . 1810
Gen. Smith, Commandant . . . 1814
Gen. Sir Don, Lieut. Governor . . . 1814
Earl of Chatham, Governor . . . 1820
Gen. Sir G. Don, Lieut. Governor . . . 1825
Lieut. Gen. Sir W. Houstoun, Lieut. Gov. . . 1831
Maj. Gen. Sir A. Woodford, Lieut. Gov. . . 1835
Maj. Gen. Sir A. Woodford, Governor . . . 1836
Gen. Sir Robert T. Wilson . . . 1842
The above list – which I have not bothered to complete - exemplifies the usual problem which seems to have been encountered by all historians attempting to distinguish between Commanders, lieutenant Governors, and the real McCoy. The dubious inclusion of General Ramos as Governor and the lack of any title whatsoever for Generals Stanwix, Clayton, Columbine and Wilson, Colonels Congreve and Cotton and Majors Battereaux and Hetherington - are perhaps worthy of note.
Ships off Gibraltar ( Mid 19th Century – G.F.C. Pocock )
Quarantine - The superintendence of whatever relates to vessels in quarantine is with the Captain of the Port. The Board of Health, to which reference is made on occasions requiring deliberation, consists of: The Governor, the Colonial Secretary, the Principal Medical Officer of the Garrison, the Captain of the Port, and the Police Magistrate - The First Clerk in the Colonial Secretary's office is the Secretary. The limits of the station assigned for the performance of quarantine by all vessels and boats are as follows:
Commencing at a beacon placed near the water mark on the western beach, at the north front of the garrison, about forty-three yards northward of the new jetty, at the new watering place on the said beach, thence running by compass about north seventy-five degrees, west one thousand nine hundred and thirty yards, more or less; thence about north eight degrees, east eight hundred and seventy yards, more or less ,- and thence about south fifty-two degrees, east two thousand two hundred yards, more or less ; to the place of commencement on the said beach, the said limits being marked and defined by the said beacon and yellow buoys aﬂoat : no vessels or boats being allowed to go within the said limits, unless to perform quarantine, without an order from the Captain of the Port.
( From the book )
( David Roberts (1836 ) (See LINK)
I find it hard to make out exactly the limits where quarantine was supposed to be performed - Wherever it was it was near this section of the West Beach
Vessels bringing clean bills of health from healthy ports are at once admitted. All others subject to quarantine are liable to the provisions of the act of parliament relating thereto.
Moreover : Vessels coming from the Black Sea, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, the coast extend ing from Alexandria to Tripoli, including Tripoli, the Archipelago, Turkey in Europe, Greece, that part of the western coast of Africa situate between the thirtieth degree of north latitude, and the twentieth degree of south latitude, and the Islands adjacent thereto, with the exception of the Canary Islands, shall forthwith quit the port of Gibraltar, not being admitted under any circumstances.
They are so far indulged, however, as to be permitted to take supplies of water and provisions, but under strict quarantine regulations. Vessels from the north coast of Africa, with enumerated goods, are not admitted under any circumstances; but those without enumerated articles, from certain ports, are admitted after a quarantine of fourteen days.
These regulations are liable to alteration by directions from the Board of Health. Vessels coming from the West Indies, or that part of the continent of America situate between the equator and the thirty-fourth degree of north latitude, and arriving between the 1st of July and the 15th of November, shall not be admitted, but forthwith quit Gibraltar. If arriving from the above places between the 16th and the 30th of November, they shall perform a quarantine of observation till the 1st of December. But vessels or goods having performed quarantine at a place where there is a foul lazaretto shall be admitted to pratique.Steamers - From England arrive weekly with mails, generally in eight days, the steamers that leave Southampton every Thursday morning. Those to Alexandria and the Levant, leaving England on the 1st of every month, generally arrive at Gibraltar in five days.The weekly packets leave Gibraltar on their return every Thursday evening, touching at Cadiz, Lisbon, and Vigo . . . The Alexandria steamers seldom bring for Gibraltar passengers from England, and never from the East, not being admitted here to pratique on their return. On their arrival, each voyage, they remain four hours, to get supplies and take mails.
( From the book )
( 1832 - Robert Batty ) (See LINK)
Gibraltar had no proper natural harbour for either steamers or large sailing ships at the time and ships were required to anchor a fair distance from the landing place at the commercial wharf which can just be seen in the engraving front of a white section of the Line Wall to the left of the Old Mole (See LINK)
From Malta, government steam packets arrive every fortnight, and return with the intermediate overland mails for the Levant, India, and China. They also carry passengers and are very commodious. . . . Beside these vessels, two French steamers run between Marseilles and Cadiz, touching at Gibraltar and at numerous ports on the coast in both voyages. One leaves Marseilles on the 1st of every month, and arrives at Gibraltar generally in ten or twelve days, - the other about the middle of the month; and the voyage from Marseilles to Cadiz and back, touching at the intermediate ports, is accomplished in about twenty-eight to thirty days. . . .
Moreover, Spanish steamers perform the same voyages, touching at Algeziras instead of Gibraltar. The arrivals of these are less regular, but no week passes without one or more leaving Algeziras for France.
A steamer of small power, the Andaluz, plies continually between Gibraltar and the neighbouring ports, crossing frequently to the Barbary coast, by which means strangers have an opportunity of seeing Tangier, Ceuta, or Tetuan. But between Gibraltar and Algeziras, although there is continual communication, no steam-boats have yet been established.
Steam-boat communication would only start after the completion of the Algeciras (Gibraltar) Railway Company of the railway in 1892 with its terminal station at Algeciras. Passengers for Gibraltar would then be transferred there by ferry. (See LINK)
The Ferryboats Margarita and Elvira carried rail passengers from Algeciras to Gibraltar (1901 – Postcard )
Passports - All travellers reaching Gibraltar are naturally provided with passports, which, when they proceed, should have the visa of the consul of the nation to which they are bound. Foreigners, in case of need, apply to their respective consuls, of whom one from each recognised government resides at Gibraltar. British subjects, unprovided, obtain passports from the governor, for each of which a fee of one dollar is paid, and accounted to the revenue.
On arrival, all British subjects are freely admitted into the garrison; but for the admission of foreigners, an application from some respectable resident is necessary, when a temporary permit is immediately granted by the police magistrate.
Markets - The lower, called the Spanish market, near the entrance of the garrison, is open from daylight until evening gun-fire, and is under the direction of a superintendent, with assistants. No payment, fee, or reward is expected, or permitted to be taken. The Spaniards bring in their produce, place it where they please (due regularity being enforced), and sell or retail it at their pleasure.
The old Market Place ( Mid 19th Century – from William Henry Bartlett ) (See LINK)
For the use of the meat-stalls in that market, occupied by the inhabitants, a small monthly rent is paid. English weights and measures are alone used in Gibraltar, the standards being in the care of the police. The correctness of the scales and weights in the markets and retail shops is carefully at tended to, and the use of steelyards in the open market is prohibited.
The fish market is at Water Port, contiguous to the Spanish market, and is open to the fishermen without payment. They sell their fish as best it pleases them; the greater part by the piece, but tunney and the larger kinds are cut up and sold by weight. No fish is permitted to be kept until the following day, and all that remains at evening gun-fire, if not sold, is given away or destroyed.
Accounts – Moneys - Exchanges - Accounts in Gibraltar are kept for the most part in dollars, rials, (sic) and quarts.16 quarts equal to 1 rial.
l2 rials equal 1 dollar.
A few mercantile houses, however, have long adopted the more simple and convenient mode of accounting by dollars and cents. All the Spanish coins from the mint at Seville are current in Gibraltar, but the peceta (sic) and half peceta are not always received as in Spain at five pecetas for a dollar, a small premium being sometimes required. It must be observed, that, in consequence of the above arbitrary division of the dollar, it has 192 quarts, or 12 rials, in Gibraltar, whereas in Spain there are only 170 quarts, or 10 5/8 rials; consequently the current dollar of exchange at Cadiz, peso de cambio, equal to eight rials of plate, is of greater value there than eight rials of plate in Gibraltar.
The silver or gold dollar passes, as in Spain, for twenty rials vellon ; its subdivision in proportion; and of late the French ﬁve-franc piece is received, as in Spain, for nineteen rials vellon. But all these coins, like other merchandise, are liable to a premium or discount, according to their abundance, or the demand for any particular description.
Spanish gold coins are also current, the doubloon equal to sixteen dollars, and subdivisions in proportion. The exchanges fluctuate as in other commercial places: with England it has of late years seldom reached fifty pence the dollar. The legal par is fifty-two pence for a dollar that being the intrinsic value of a Spanish dollar compared with British sterling silver; and at this rate all payments in law are made, unless otherwise agreed on by the parties.
The complexities of having two different types of coinage - whether in gold, silver or otherwise – and with different values given to each in Gibraltar and in Spain makes one wonder how on earth commerce was able to function smoothly on the Rock. But smoothly it did. Our ancestors were obviously much more adept at dealing with these matters than I would have been.
The Rock from Spain ( Mid 19th century – T. Jones )