The People of Gibraltar
1854 - Reginald Fowler - Hither and Thither 

Aaron Cardozo and the Francia family - Mrs Crosbie and Sir Robert Gardiner.
General  Narváez 

Reginald Fowler was a relatively obscure English lawyer who travelled extensively around the world and summarised his experiences in a book with the self-explanatory title of Hither and Thither; or, Sketches of Travels on Both sides of the Atlantic. For stylistic reasons he admitted that; 
. . . little matters of detail, which usually occupy so much space in works of this nature . . . have been studiously omitted . . . the writer intended to  extend  them  to  many other countries,  but  he  has now decided  upon  appearing  before  the public in  an unambitious manner,  and to be guided by the result, as to  whether he may  venture to  intrude  upon them again.
He never did intrude on us again but his chapter on Gibraltar seems detailed enough to be well worth quoting. 
Arrival -  We  anchored  among  a  crowd  of  shipping lying off the  "old Mole,"  and  had  not a little  indulgence been extended to us,  could not have  entered  the  fortress  that  evening. Happily that very important functionary  the  "key sergeant,"  had  either  received  his  instructions or was not disposed that evening to execute his  duties  with  unnecessary harshness,  for  the "Waterport"  gates  were  kept  open  a  few  minutes after the  proper time  for  closing them  had  arrived,  and  we  were  permitted to  land.

Off the old Mole  - the distance the Spanish Lines. The pill boxes were known as Garitas  ( 1844 - George Lothian Hall )

An old mole infested with feluccas and other small craft was the norm for much of the century and as testified by numerous painting and old photographs. The gates at Waterport were indeed normally - and ceremonially - closed at specifically designated times. The exception here was that a member of the Governor's family happened to be on board Fowler's ship. The Governor was probably Robert Gardiner.
The Club House - A rush took place to secure rooms at the "Club House" hotel,  where being an old acquaintance  I  was  fortunate enough  to  obtain  a  couple  of  rooms overlooking the  bay.
The pink building overlooking the King's Bastion was known as the 'Club House' Hotel at the time   ( 1844 - George Lothian Hall )

The 'Club House' was in the Commercial Square in middle of town and possible the best available. He had obviously been to Gibraltar before. The building, one of the finest in Gibraltar had been built by Aaron Cardozo ( see LINK ) a prominent Jewish merchant. After having lived in it in some style for several years he had rented it out to a certain Mrs Crosbie, who had converted it into an hotel. 
Levante - The bay is  always  full  of life  and  motion,  but as treacherous as  it is beautiful;  in a strong East wind or "Levante" the gusts sweep across  its waters,  driving the scud in silvery clouds  before  its blast,  or whirling the waters round and round in eddying circles of foam."
A footnote informs the reader that no English man of war is allowed to hoist a sail when the Levante is blowing. There was he say, a standing order in the service against doing so. Other civilian boats followed suit as much as possible - although accidents seem to have been quite frequent. 
The Town - The town within the walls . . . consists of narrow streets, sometimes very steep  (then called "Ramps,")  large  barracks,  commissariat  and  ordnance  store and  officers  quarters;  with  one  or  two  small open squares.  The  public buildings  are  none of them worth comment;  the private houses are usually small,  and not very well calculated  for the  heat  of  the  climate.  The  roofs  are  flat and are not infrequently adorned by the week's wash of  linen,  hanging to  dry;  while  within, as  the  horses often  occupy  the  ground  floor, a  decidedly  stable  smell  is  apparent.
The  English residents furnish their houses during the winter,  after  the  English  fashion;  but  in  the hot  months  of summer,  the rooms  are as much denuded  of  carpets  and  furniture  as  possible. Every  house  is  provided with a  tank, which is supplied by the rain water from the roof, carried into  it  by  gutters  and  pipes;  the  drainage  is worse  than  indifferent. The best parts  of the town are clean, but where the Barbary Jews and Moors  congregate,  the state of things is horrid. . . 
The  house  at  present  occupied  by  the  Captain  of the Port would  be considered a good  one  even  in  England while no  one  will  ever  forget  the  view  from  the  drawing-room at "Glen Rocky"  . . .
The house of the Captain of the Port was called Mount Pleasant - or 'the Mount' for short. Glen Rocky was the residence of the Chief Justice of Gibraltar.
Smuggling - In former  days,  when the smuggling trade into Spain  was  prosperous,  and  was  so  valuable that  every  foot  was  economized;  rents  were enormous,  and  are  still  comparatively  high, though the  LEGITIMATE  trade of the place is very small   . . 
. . . since  the  residence  of  General Narváez at Gibraltar, the  ILLEGITIMATE  or smuggling trade has been made too expensive to leave much profit.  There are now too many officers to bribe.  That  General  Narváez  did  not  waste his time while on the Rock in profitless idleness is tolerably  notorious,  and therefore  on his return to power in Spain  he  had acquired  information which was not allowed to remain unproductive.  
On the subject of the trade  of the place the inhabitants are peculiarly sensitive,  and probably all the  more so,  as  it really is not easy to  defend it.  The trade in tobacco and  cigar  making is  extensive,  and  I  believe blameless;  and of course a great number of people  are  supported  by business  connected  with shipping.

Ramón María de Narváez   ( mid 19th century - Vicente Lopez )

General Narvaez was an astute military man and a conservative politician. His draconian measures in 1838, cleared the entire area of la Mancha of brigands. In 1840 he took part in an insurrection against Baldomero Espartero of the Progresista Party and was forced to flee the country, taking up temporary residence - as mentioned by Fowler - in Gibraltar. 
Hygiene - Since the new  fortifications have  been built,  and the breakwater  thrown  out,  the  refuse  from  the  town is not freely carried away by the sea,  but remains to pollute the air and generate disease. This neglect of  common precaution is  in  a  climate like this,  quite inexcusable.  
The remedy is  easy;  nothing  more  would be required than to carry the sewers a few feet further into the sea. I  understood that before  this  breakwater was finished,  the resident medical  men called upon the then commanding engineer and represented the  great danger  to  the  health  of  the  town which would ensue, if the works were proceeded with;  the answer was "I  am here  to take care of the  STRENGTH  not  the HEALTH  of Gibraltar;" pithy  but unsatisfactory.
The author suffered greatly from these unsavoury conditions and he continued on the same vein for quite a few paragraphs. In a footnote he observes that Irish Town in general and the Engineers' mess in particular, were perhaps the worst places in town in this respect.  He also adds -  somewhat ironically - that the quarters of the Colonel commanding the Engineers are well removed from the mess and suggests that it will need the decimation of the Garrison from fever for anything ever to be done about it.
The Convicts - Within  the  dockyard  gates  is  the  large  convict  establishment amounting  at  times  to nearly 1000  men,  who are employed  upon  the  new  fortifications. ( see LINK
When he attended a service on one occasion he was pleased to note the 'quiet orderly demeanour of the prisoners' and the fact that they took off their shoes and carried them by hand inside the chapel. Curiously and in contradiction of the official line, the chaplain told him that the general opinion among the prisoners was that their punishment was far too great for their crime.
The Convent - The  country  house  of  the  governor  of the  fortress,  faces the Mediterranean near this spot, but  the  residence  usually  occupied by him,  is  within  the  walls  of the town,-was formerly a  convent,  and  is  called  so  still.  The  house is poorly  furnished,  and  the  reception  rooms, except  the  dining  room,  and  ball  room,  are small.  Attached  is  a  well-kept  and  pretty garden.
The Military Prison - On  Windmill-hill,  close  to  this  spot,  is  the military prison,  having cells for forty prisoners. The  prison  is  clean,  admirably arranged,  and the discipline very strict;  the  punishments are severe.  Flogging,  solitary confinement,  drill, shot exercise (which consists in lifting,  without intermission,  for  three hours,  a  32lb.  ball  from one  spot,  and  putting  it down  on  another),  at the word of command,  are the chief;  the minor punishments consist in breaking stones, sleeping every third night on the bare floor, without bed or  bedding,  and  the  withdrawal  of  some  few indulgences.  
Every man works 11½ hours a day; no occupation, with any variety or interest in it is allowed.  The  prisoners  appear all wretched and  gloomy in the extreme. I came away with the conviction,  that two years of such  punishment, and such incessant control,  must  utterly  prostrate  any  man's  mind  and  feelings, - he must  leave it,  a mere machine,  without  sense,  either of pleasure or pain.
All of which suggests that the author was a man of unusual sensitivity for his time.
The Cathedrals. . . the  public  buildings,  inside the  walls  of the  fortress,  scarcely  deserve any comment  . . . First in order comes the Protestant cathedral, a  hideous  heavy  building,  of  Moorish  architecture,  built by the engineers;  outside, it looks like a large flat-roofed shapeless mausoleum . . .
The Roman  Catholic Cathedral (except that it possesses a tower and a bell),  makes no external pretentious whatever; and within, the lover of the fine  arts would not  find much  to gratify his taste.
The Elders - There exists in Gibraltar a  body of men called  "Elders"  who are elected each year by the congregation, and have entire control over the revenues of  the  church.  This very Presbyterian institution is quite foreign  to the discipline of the Roman Catholic Church. I believe it exists nowhere else amongst that body, and it  has existed  from time immemorial here. 
It is not of British growth. The" fungus"  is indigenous.  It was perhaps only  natural that the present vicar apostolic should not approve of it,  and decline to recognise the authority of the elders.  But they,  much to their credit, insisted upon his surrendering into their charge, the fees arising  from  the  church;  and  on  his  refusal, the court  of chancery  was  applied  to, that the matter might be decided.  It decreed compliance with  the  established  custom, and Dr- was for some time imprisoned for contempt of court . . .
The Jews . . . in Gibraltar are  a  very  numerous body and  possess  four  rather  handsome  synagogues.  Many  of  them  are  wealthy,  but  by far the  greater  part  of  the  Jewish  population are dirty in their persons and habits, and possess to an almost exaggerated  degree,  the  features and cunning  twinkle of the  eye,  characteristic of  their  race.  They  may  be  seen  in  filthy brown striped" bernouse"  or long gown,  leaning  against  the  door  posts,  or  seated  on  the stop,  eagerly  trafficking;  their  faces  almost touching in the eagerness of their pursuit.  
They appear to converse more with the face and hands than with the lips;  some  of  their  customs  are said to be most peculiar.  Previous to marriage the intended  wife sits on the  side of a bed,  for a  week,  in  full  dress,  with painted  eyebrows, hands  covered  with  jewels,  and  the nails  also stained, to receive visitors.  Every Jewish woman in this part of the  world on marriage, shaves the head and  wears  a wig;  and  so  rigidly  is  this adhered to,  that an English Jewess of the better class who  refused to  comply with  this custom, was on that account not visited by the ladies of her  own  persuasion.  

Jewish Woman of Gibraltar ( 1830s -John Frederick Lewis  )
They  never  allow  anyone  to die in  bed,  but  put  them  on  the  floor when they appear to  be  "in  a dying state;" a ready way,  it may  be  supposed  of  extinguishing the little life  that  remains.  All  the  water in the house is also emptied at once, as the Jews of the  lowest  class  believe,  that Death  (whom they  personify) cleans  his  bloody  sword  after the stroke,  in the water.  
Their houses are dirty and  wretched,  and  the  food upon which  they live,  of  the  poorest  kind.  They  are  chiefly Barbary  Jews,  and I believe  are as low  in the mental  and  physical scale  as  possible.  I make these  statements  on the authority of one of the most respectable natives of the rock, and have no reason to doubt their truth.
A sustained diatribe expounding the kind of sentiments that were unfortunately held by many British visitors at the time - although the most revealing sentence is undoubtedly the last one. It would have been interesting to know the identity of that  'respectable native'.
Moors from Barbary  . . also crowd the streets and walk most majestically; their tall, upright, manly figures,  loosely enveloped ill a white or brown robe, their legs generally stockingless, and their feet  encased  in  bright  yellow  slippers - the massive turban  twisted tightly  round the  open and  high  fore-head,  make  an  impression not readily  effaced.  
They are  not  much  darker in  complexion  than  the  Southern  Spaniards, exhibiting  in their faces  indisputable marks  of the purity of their race,  and in their  slow  and dignified walk,  the scorn which every true mussulman feels  for the unbeliever. They frequent the  theatre when  it is  opened for  performance, and seem to enter very fully  into whatever may be  represented,  but their  feelings  with  regard to the fair sex must be dreadfully shocked by the appearance of ladies on  the  stage.
Fowler is by no means alone in his odd English preference for all things Moorish - perhaps confusing the romantic notion of the stereotypical desert Arab and his maritime counterpart - the cruel but dashing corsair of the Barbary coast - with the reality of the common Gibraltarian market trader from nearby Tetuan.
Commercial Square - The  scene . . . on  an auction morning,  is also most curious and entertaining.  First of all,  a few  huge casks  of leaf tobacco  are  disposed  of;  then  probably  the auctioneer  mounts  a  little  stool,  with  a  desk about  the  size  of  an  ordinary  octavo  volume attached to it, and offers  to  public  competition, a  most miscellaneous assortment of goods - say a case of champagne, half a-dozen old sails, Dutch cheeses, left off uniforms, odd volumes  of books, a chain cable,  a few  spars,  an  iron bedstead, a  chest  of  drawers,  old  nails,  a few  prints  of sacred  subjects,  most  grotesquely  coloured  to suit  the  Spanish  peasants'  taste,  some  soap, knives,  needles  and  pins,  and a bale or two of trumpery cotton prints;  finishing probably with the  sale  of a  horse,  "warranted  sound,"  and only parted with because  the owner  is  leaving the garrison.
While  this  is  going  on,  the ground is being strewed with the usual contents of a  "marine store" in  England,  around which people gather, and traffic, nothing  being  apparently too old or  valueless  to find  a  purchaser. In about two hours  all  is  gone,  and  the  open space  resumes  its  quiet  half-deserted  aspect until  the  band  appears  for  evening  gun  fire.

Street market in Commercial Square in the early 20th century ( Unknown ) 

It was these auctions held in the Commercial Square that would give it its local Llanito ( see LINK ) or slang name of el Martillo. It was perhaps during the Peninsular War when local privateers were filling the harbour on a daily basis with "prizes" that the auction market was probably at its height.
The Market - Had I been an early riser I  should have found the fruit  and  vegetable  market  amusing;  but the sun  does  not appear  over  the rock until it has been  shining  an hour or two  on  the  level country around; and mess dinners and whist parties in rather  too rapid succession do not induce early hours  in the  morning.  In  Gibraltar, as  in the United States, the gentlemen go early to market;  the ladies are spared that trouble.

Poultry and Egg Market  ( 1890 - P Naumann )

As shown on the etching, it was not a costume that would persist - if it ever was in Gibraltar. During the 20th century women were probably far more likely to go to the market than men.
Waterport Street - Nowhere  can  a greater  variety  of  people language and dress be heard or seen than in the part of Gibraltar near the port, and particularly in  Waterport Street;  almost  every  country in the world is more or less represented.  In other places  a  similar  variety  probably  exists,  but scattered  thinly  over  a  much  larger  space; here,  it  is  concentrated  as  it  were  into  one focus,  a  thick  slowly  moving  mass  . . 

Waterport Steet - late nineteenth century ( Unknown )

By Waterport Street he means today's Main Street. His amazement at the colourful mosaic of nationalities is identical to that of a plethora of other visitors - as is his inability to identify the real inhabitant of the Rock of which there were probably well over 15 000 as against less that 1500 Jews and far fewer Moors.
The Neutral Ground - Passing through the  Waterport  gate  . . .  brought me to the level plain, which  separates  the  bay of Gibraltar from  the Mediterranean;  on  this  plain  are  scattered, here  and  there,  a  few  guard-houses,  a kennel for  the  Calpe  fox  hounds ( see LINK ) , an  enclosed  burial ground for  the troops;  close  to  which,  but unprotected  in  any  way,  are  a  few  flat  stones, indicating that here,  in former  days, the race of Israel were buried;  and in  singular  and rather misplaced  juxtaposition with these  records  of mortality,  is the circular race-course; ( see LINK )   while,  a little  further  on,  are  the  sheds and slaughterhouses,  in which the cattle are fatted and killed, for the supply of the garrison.  

The Slaughter House  - this building probably replaced the one mentioned by the author   ( Unknown )
About 500 Barbary oxen are always kept here. There is also a  little  cultivated  patch  of  garden  ground, enclosed  by a prickly pear hedge, in which vegetables  are  grown  for  the  garrison,  which derives,  however,  its  chief  supply  of  these necessaries from  Spain;  this garden is  irrigated by means of a  Persian wheel,  turned by a poor blindfolded ox.

'Persian waterwheel' - known locally as a 'noria' and blindfolded ox  ( Unknown )
La Línea - About  a mile from  the rock  stands, the  little  cluster  of houses,  forming the village at the Spanish lines.  The only  house with two stories,  in the place,  is  the dwelling of the colonel  commandant;  all  the  rest  are,  to  the  last degree, poverty  stricken. 
The uniform of the Spanish  soldier,  is  made  of grey frieze,  and is mean  looking; the  men  are  under-sized,  and by no means soldier like in their walk or appearance,  though  their  long stride enables them to march quicker than any other troops in Europe. The  mounted  police  are fine  picked men, who, in  their  large  jaunty  cocked  hat,  yellow glittering belt, and other showy accoutrements, both of rider and horse,  look more like field marshals than simple policemen.  
Passing  this  spot,  the road  skirts  the  bay  shore,  and is  a  mere sand track;  when the tide is out the road is good, and the  favourite  ride  of the Gibraltar people.  A few reeds grow out of the sand, other vegetation there is none . . . 

". . A few reeds grow out of the sand, other vegetation there is none . . ."    ( 1868 - G. W. Wilson )
. . .  and after following the course of the bay, for  about  two  miles,  and  turning  inland to the right, we soon reach the little village, of  Campo,  one  of the  Summer  retreats  of  the merchants, and officers of the garrison; which is a mean-looking  little  place,  but  undoubtedly  a beneficial change of residence,  for the Gibraltar people.

Gibraltar from Campamento ( 1850 - Unknown ) 
Beyond this is a  "Quinta" and farm,  of several hundred acres,  on whose rather trying soil,  Mr. F - exercises  his  patience,  as  a farmer.
The 'little village of Campo' must have been what is today known as Campamento. Mr F was a Gibraltarian resident called Mr. Francia. Even as far back as the early 18th century the family's 'Quinta' was well known as an exceptionally attractive place. It was usually referred to as the 'Orange Grove'.

The Orange Grove ( 1772 - Francis Carter )
San Roque  . . . the  town  of St.  Roque stands,  about six miles from Gibraltar. .  its only attraction is a  capital hotel . .  Macrae's" fonda" is unexceptionably clean, and moderate  in  its  charges;  I  do  not know what the Gibraltar people would do without this hotel . . .Here the newly-wedded,  of all grades of society,  sacrifice  to  the  cold  etiquette  of  the world,  their  first  week  or  two of married life. They  SHOULD  be  all  in all to each other, for in this solitude they will find  little to interfere with the proper concentration of their thoughts.
According to the Gibraltar Directory of 1879 ( see LINK ) at McRae's Hotel in Calle San Felipe, "an excellent glass of milk-punch can be obtained, and the owner, who was for more than 39 years the Post-office agent between San Roque and Gibraltar, is always ready and willing to draw upon his memory for a store of anecdotes connected with the place and its associations."

A view of San Roque    ( 1868 - G.W.Wilson )
Almoraima - From St. Roque, it is an easy ride to the cork-wood,  and convent of Almoraima.  Those who have  been  long  in  Gibraltar, talk  of the cork-wood  most  enthusiastically;  to  them  it is the perfection  of Sylvan scenery;  the simple truth is,  that  there  is  nothing  remarkable  about it. . . . The  goal  to  be  reached,  is  the  convent of Almoraima,  now  deserted,  except by a  solitary Priest,  exiled thither, it is said for his sins;  and an  amazing  colony  of  little  boys  and  girls. The question of paternity  might  be  a  curious subject of enquiry,  but there,  at any  rate,  they are.  

A picnic in the Almoraima Cork Woods ( 1877 - Graphic )
Censorship . . . it must be confessed that  propagandism of any kind,  either political  or religious,  is studiously discountenanced by the Gibraltar authorities.  This  censorship  is  carried to  the  very verge of tyranny.  No public meeting to discuss a  local grievance  is allowed,  and the  Gibraltar Chronicle,  the only  newspaper published on the rock,  is subject to the most rigid exanimation on the part of two octogenarian officials.  No original matter is allowed to  appear in  it,  except  it be the different "garrison orders,"  . . all is  mere scissors work.  

The Gibraltar Chronicle ( 1826 )
It is  in  consequence,  a  poor  shrivelled anatomy,  the  sort  of thing  an Englishman  expects to find  in a  cafe in  Rome  or Naples,  or possibly Vienna.  In Gibraltar, liberty does not exist;  "cedant arma  togae" is reversed.  The sentinels warn you  off this place, and that; at night after  12  o'clock, a  "pass" and a lamp are necessary,  as you walk along the  streets,  under  penalty of an hour or two in one of the guard houses, unless an  officer in uniform be with you, or you are bold enough to shout out " Officer" in gruff and disciplinarian tones.  
The officials in the civil departments  have "passes"  issued  to  them, which  saves  them  from  this  nuisance,  but  a mere visitor is sadly  annoyed by it. It is not therefore a matter of surprise, that Protestantism has  not gained many  converts,  education  much  advanced,  or  that the  Spaniards cling as tenaciously as  ever  to  every  national habit.
By 'Spaniards' he is almost certainly referring to the local residents - a very large proportion of whom were not even of Spanish descent. 
A very  tiny steamer plies between  Algeciras and Gibraltar  This  little cockle shell is really quite a curiosity.  The crew consist of a  man to steer,  and two little boys.

The tiny steamer that plies between Algeciras and Gibraltar may have been like the one shown here on the wharf  ( Early 2oth century - Unknown )