The People of Gibraltar
1870 - Photos of Gibraltar - Part 1

1. A Panoramic View of Gibraltar
This first view is missing in the Spanish Ministry of Defence collection. The one below is a similar version. The real one had been divided into two section for easier viewing. All the photos - not just this one - will enlarge when clicked on.

1. Royal Battery left and Rock Gun right 2.Boca Negra Battery  3. Willis’ Battery 4. Queen’s Battery 5. Queen’s Union Galleries 6. Peregil Hill 7. Site of the Old Round Tower Battery 8. Covered pathway 9. Glacis 10. Hanover Battery 11. Moorish Castle Northern Battery 12. Battery with large calibre guns under construction in 1894 13. Middle Hill Parapet 14. Sea Linewall 15. Waterport and entrance to Market and Casemates 16. Commercial Wharf

17. Montague Bastion 18. Chatham’s Counterguard 19. Prince Albert’s Battery 20. King’s Bastion and Barracks 21. Princess Alexander Battery 22. New Mole 23. Signal Station - El Hacho

2 . View of the Rock from the Foothills of Sierra Carbonera
The ruin on the foothills of Sierra Carbonera shown in this picture is known in Spain as la Torre Pedreras. It has often been confused with another old tower built on the summit of the hill known to the Spanish as La Torre de la Sierra Carbonera - or “Silla de la Reina” - and to the English as the “Queen of Spain’s Chair”. Curiously the names do not refer to the same queen.

1. The Rock of Gibraltar  2. The Bay  3. The town of La Línea de la Concepción  4. Sandy area
5. Ruins of the medieval tower known as la Torre Pedreras 

3. The Rock from the Spanish side of the Isthmus
The first caption on this one identifies the northern peak of the Rock as “el Monte de las Monas”  - a name which I have not heard of before. A far more common name is “Rock Gun”.  Caption 10 reflects Spanish annoyance at what was perceived by them as British encroachment of the Neutral Ground and an incorrect interpretation of the Treaty of Utrecht.

1. Rock Gun - Monte de las Monas 2. Signal Station - El Hacho 3. St George’s Battery inside St Georges Hall 4. Queen’s Battery inside the Galeries 5. Union Batteries inside the Galleries 6. Site of the Old Round Tower Battery 7. Peregil Hill 8. Tower of Homage - Moorish Castle 9. Town of Gibraltar 10. North Front hutments used as barracks (on usurped neutral territory) 11. Isthmus sands

4.  The Isthmus and the curve of the Bay

1. The Mediterranean  2. Sierra Carbonera  3. La Línea de la Concepción  4. Spanish sentry boxes  5. English sentry boxes  6. Cemeteries  7. Fresh Water Distillation Plant   8. Water Mole   9. Huts used as barracks by the English infantry  10. Shipyards  11. Stone or brick Mole 12. Bayside Barrier   13. Queen Victoria Road  14. Hanover Battery  15. The Innundation 16. North Front Glacis 

5. La Línea from the Wall of the Moorish Castle
Caption 5 refers to a fishing village called la Atunara.

1. Sierra Carbonera  2. The Mediterranean  3. La Línea de la Concepción  4. Pavillions for Spanish Officers   5. La Tunara  6. English sentry boxes  7. Advanced Spanish guard houses  8. Advanced Spanish guard houses  9. Water Mole  10. Fresh Water Distillation Plant  11. Huts used as barracks by the English infantry  12. Brick Mole  13. Bayside Barrier  14. The Inundation  15. Queen Victoria Road  16. North Front Glacis  17. Glacis covered pathway  18. Moorish Castle Cruchette battery No.6

6.  Usurped Isthmus territory 
Compare the title of this photograph with caption 10 of photograph No. 3

1. The Mediterranean  2. Spanish guard houses  3. Spanish sentry boxes  4. English shooting targets  5. Training ground and racecourse  6. Racecourse grandstand and stables  7. Cemeteries  8. Wood Stores

7. Rock of the Apes and Peregil Hill
The number identifying captions 14 and 19 are missing on the photograph.

1. Rock Gun Battery  2. Salto del Lobo  3. St George’s Battery - the Galleries  4. Cornwallis Battery - the Galleries  5. Boca NegraBattery  6. Willis’ Battery  7. Windsor Battery  8. Queen’s Battery  9. Union Batery - higer - Dientes de la Virja  10. Union Battery - lower - Dientes de la Vieja  11. Old Round Tower Battery  12. Reverse Casemates  13. East Gallery   14. Reverse Gallery  15. Middle Hill Battery - La Silleta  16. Modern Battery with large calibre guns  17. Covered pathway to the Moorish Castle  18. Covered pathway to Hanover Battery  19. Path through Peregil Hill   20. Bayside Barrier

8. Rock Gun - or Northern Summit of the Rock

1. San Roque  2. Sierra Carbonera  3. La Pedrera - The Queen of Spain’s Chair  4. The Bay
5. San Felipe breakwater  6. La Línea de la Concepción  7. Munitions arsenal  8. Fort on Summit  9. East facing battery  10. The Mediterranean

9. Landport Front

1 to 6. Northern Batteries of the Moorish Castle   7. Higher batteries  8. Hanover’s Battery  9 to 12. Flanking Batteries  13. Landport Curtain - Grand Battery  14. Prince of Hess Bastion  15. Landport cover defences  16. Curtain Wall of the Bastion  17. Landport Gate and drawbridge  18. Ditch  19. Glacis covered pathways  20. Signal Station - El Hacho  21. Moorish Castle Artillery barracks  22. Eastern section of the Moorish Castle precinct

10.  Landport Gate Front and Ditch
The Moorish Castle no 6 and 7 batteries were known as Crutchett’s Batteries. See photograph 5 for a different view of the lower Crutchett’s Battery.

1. Windsor Battery  (Extreme top left)  2. Wall flanking Batteries  3. Northern wall of the Moorish Castle  4. Crutchett’s Battery  5. Landport Gate Curtain  6. Prince of Hesse Bastion  7. Curtain Wall of the Bastion  8. Hanover’s Battery  9. Batteries flanking the glacis and the Ditch  10. Landport Gate and drawbridge    11. Ramp for access to the ditch  12. Curtain wall drawbridge

11. Sea and Land Fortifications
Casemates Gates were build on the site of the original medieval Waterport gate. Caption 15 should therefore perhaps read Casemates Gates rather than Waterport Gates or Puertas de Mar which were at the time of the Commission part of the 1st line of defences.

1. Landport Glacis  2. Ditches  3. Curtain wall  4. Prince of Hesse Bastion  5. Landport Curtain  6. First line of bastions and fortifications at Waterport  7. Commercial wharf  8. Old Mole  9. Second line of bastions and fortifications at Waterport  10. Montague Bastion  11. Casemates and Pavilions  12. Harbour Master’s Office or Port Office and Guardroom  13. Casemates Barracks  14. Northern battery No. 5 of the Moorish Castle  15. Casemates Gate

12. Union of Sea and Land Fortifications
The word “Caponera” is used to describe caption 12. This translates into either “a prison” or a “chicken coop” in English. Neither seem to fit I have left it out in the description shown below.

1. Puente Marga   2. Punta Mala   3. El Campamneto   4. San Roque   5. San Felipe breakwater   6. La Pedrera - Queen of Spain’s Chair  7. Sierra Carbonera  8. La Línea de la Concepción  9. Female bathing facilities at the foot of the glacis  10. Landport glacis  11. Glacis covered pathway  12. Top of ditch of the curtain wall  13. Curtain wall  14. Curtain wall drawbridge  15. Ramp leading to and from the ditch  16. Landport Gate ditch  17. Curtain battery  18. Prince of Hess Bastion  19.  Line of Bastions and batteries of Waterport Gate  20. Patio of Casemates Barracks  21. Terrace of Casemates Barracks

1870 - Photos of Gibraltar - Introduction
1870 - Photos of Gibraltar - Part 1
1870 - Photos of Gibraltar - Part 2
1870 - Photos of Gibraltar - Part 3
1870 - Photos of Gibraltar - Part 4