1888 - A Popular History - The Lunatic Asylums
Baglietto, Creswell and Larios - Francia, Coll and Amigo
Yentob Bergel and M.H. Bland - Lewis Imossi, Balestrino and Carrara
Thomson and James Galleano - Peacock, Smith and John Baptist Scandella
Henri Regnault and Don Juan Gavino
Henri Regnault and Don Juan Gavino
In 1888 the equivalent of the Gibraltar Directory was published by the Garrison Library. It was called A Popular History of Gibraltar its Institutions and its Neighbourhood on both sides of the Straits. Its author - or compiler - was Lieutenant-Colonel Gilbard who unfortunately died before he finished his task. It was 'continued on behalf of Mrs. Gilbard' who was presumably his wife.
Here is a small selection of the page upon page of relatively useless information contained within;
In 1881 the population is given as nearly 24 000 of which the civilian was divided as follows ; Catholics 15 000, Hebrews 1 600, Protestants 1 400. What follows is a short history of census taking on the Rock and a mention of the constant preoccupation by the authorities that the population was increasing at an unacceptable rate. According to the author, during the early 19th century;
'continual Proclamations were published to control the admissions of aliens and to prevent overcrowding but no actual principle was laid down . . . The evil had so much gained ground that a radical reform of the Permit system was carried out. . . . . it is only by such measures, harsh though they may prove occasionally to be, that the population of Gibraltar can be kept within reasonable limits consistent with safety to health.'
Inhabitants and Addresses
The book includes a list of some of the inhabitants and their addresses ( see LINK )
A small fishing village . . inhabited chiefly by the descendents of Genoese fishermen, and there is a detachment of soldiers . . always quartered there in a small . . barracks at the back of which is a small Roman Catholic Church.
Catalan Bay Barracks
During the French invasion many of the inhabitants of San Roque who had sought refuge at Catalan Bay were victims of a large fall of stones . . .In 1870 there was a very large landslip, but fortunately on the road near North Front, so the village escaped; the road was, however lost. In the flood of November 1875, the little church was completely gutted by torrential rain . . . and some of the outbuildings of the barracks were buried, but there were no casualties. The village passed, a path over the sand leads to the next bay (Sandy Bay ) from which no further progress can be made.
The Court House
was constructed in the Governorship of General Don. It is not remarkable for the uniformity of its architecture, although the portico follows the model of the Parthenon. It contains the Law courts and offices, Library and chambers . . .
Convent of our Lady of Europa
Europa Main Road - It is occupied by the sisters of the Institute of our Lady of Loretto (sic), and attached to it is a Young Ladies' Seminary, exceedingly well conducted and well attended.
The Loreto Convent still going strong in 1946 as a Primary School - The author is standing far right.
In Prince Edward's Road; founded in 1850 by the Trustees of the late Don Juan Gavino of Gibraltar, who devised all his large property for charitable institutions. It maintains 28 aged paupers and 18 orphans.
The Lunatic Asylum
is erected in a beautiful situation in Witham's Garden at the South and possesses a magnificent view over the Bay and Straits. It was erected by Lord Napier of Magdala to accommodate 20 male and 10 female patients, being finally completed in 1884.
St Joseph's - The Lunatic Asylum
The present Market was commenced in the summer of 1876, the Foundation Stone having been laid . . . with full Masonic honours, by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, M.W. Grand Master of the Freemasons of England, assisted by the District Grand Lodge of Gibraltar.
Lodge 153 laying the foundation stone of the new market at Chatham Counterguard with Grand Master HRH Albert Edward Prince of Wales in full Masonic regalia in 1876
The Jew's Market
Held in the Commercial Square , 'Plaza del Martillo' from auction sales being held there, chiefly of tobacco which may be seen there in huge 'botas' as it comes from America, partly broken open to show the quality of what may be a noxious weed, but is a necessity of life to the Spaniard. The goods sold at this market are of great diversity and marvellous cheapness.
Commercial Square in the early 20th century.
The Police Office
A handsome building of red brick, with a colonnade of Gothic arches but the effect is spoilt by its being attached to other house ( The Public Baths )
The Police Office on the far right with its Gothic facade
The Theatre Royal
The exterior is plain and without ornament . . it was for many years the only building in town where public entertainment could take place, and by boarding it over the Pit Stalls it makes a pretty Ball-room with convenient Supper-room adjoining.
What the author meant was that the Theatre Royal was the only building available to the locals - the Garrison had plenty of other alternatives such as the Convent, the Garrison Library and elsewhere. And yet even this was taken over periodically by the military for their own entertainment.
1875 Theatre Royal Poster
The Assembly Rooms
Created in 1884-1885. . . on a site at the north end of the Alameda, granted for the purpose by the War Office . . It contains a Ball-Room with . . retiring rooms; a moveable stage for theatrical performances, concerts, a restaurant with . . . offices, kitchens . . and a rain water tank . . The East wing contains the Lodge Rooms etc of the Freemasons of Gibraltar, by whom the enterprise was inaugurated.
The Assembly Rooms
'It is the finest British institution of its kind out of England and is the property of the Garrison . . . The site was originally a garden belonging to the Governor who also had the esplanade without . . . yielding sufficient grass to supply . . his own horse and the cattle employed in the public works . . It would puzzle cattle to pick up a meal there now . . . .'
In a footnote, the date of the name change from Governor's to Gunner's is given as the 30th of March 1803 when the Duke of Kent was Governor of Gibraltar. The place was 'appropriated to the use of the Royal Artillery as a regimental parade.'
The Grand Store,
Southport Street, includes the offices and stores of the Ordnance Store Department, contained in roomy and convenient buildings . . . It was erected on part of the garden ground appertaining to the neighbouring Franciscan Convent, now the residence of the Governor.
The old Armoury at the South end, now the Garrison Recreation Room, the old building being remodelled for the purpose under the auspices of the Governor, Sir J. M. Adye, in 1884, was built in 1790, and probably stands on ground formerly the burying place of the Convent, as a number of skeletons were dug from the foundations, and with the remains, in some instances, Rosaries
The Main Guard,
A plain building, with a portico, stands in the Commercial-square. On the ground floor are the Men's Guard-room and the cells, where refractory prisoners may be heard wearing out the panels of the door, their own boots, and the patience of those in charge, oftentimes in the witching hours of night.
On the upper story is the Officers' Room, sparely furnished with mouldy and exceedingly curious
specimens of the upholsterer's art, for the hire of which the gallant officer who has charge of the safety of the town for his weary tour of daily duty, has to pay a small sum to an enterprising local tradesman.
The walls are ornamented by some few drawings of more or less merit, executed in spare moments of visiting sentries and receiving the field officer of the day,—not to mention the visits of sympathising brother officers . . . Three of these drawings, however, are well worth a more lengthened notice, not only for their own merit, but as the work of Henri Regnault, the most promising French artist of his time . . .
Nudes by Henri Regnault - I am not sure where the three Regnault drawing mentioned above are kept today but if they are anything like the example shown here they must have been very popular to all the residents of the Main Guard.
North District; Casemates Barracks, Artillery Barracks - Gunner's Parade, Town Range Barracks, Hargrave Barracks
And in the South; South Barracks - Built 1730/35 to hold 1 200 men, Rosia Barracks, Buena Vista Barracks, Windmill Hill, Europa Barracks Brewery and defensible Barracks, Europa Flats
Europa Mess House was built in 1828 as a sanatorium for officers, but it was afterwards found that it was more convenient and advantageous to their recovery to send them to England when steam communication rendered the passage an easy undertaking. The building was empty until the hut barracks were built, and standing by itself obtained the name of Bleak House.
. . . is known commonly as Margate.
On the North Front are the race-stand and premises, the cricket pavilions, the cemeteries, the commissariat cattle-sheds and slaughter-houses, the laundry, the kennels of the Calpe Hunt, the rifle-ranges, hutments for the accommodation of detachments during the musketry season, some few small dwellings inhabited by soldiers, many stores and yards, and chief among them a large timber and marble yard and saw mill, established by Messrs. Bland, who also manufacture the artificial ice with which the Garrison is supplied.
North Front and Calpe Hunt Kennels
This establishment is a very great boon to Gibraltar, and the inhabitants render grateful thanks for the enterprise which has procured for them a most bountiful supply of this luxury, a necessity indeed during the heat of summer, and at a very reasonable rate; the more so as previously to the establishment of this local emporium, the supplies from Cadiz and other places were very intermittent and uncertain, and usually failed at times of the greatest need. Aerated waters of the best description are also manufactured at this establishment . . .
A raised Esplanade with its bandstand has recently been built along the road as one of the improvements to North Front. Trees have been planted and walks formed . . . and gardens bordering it on both sides have been carefully laid out and planted . .
Gibraltar from the Spanish frontier ( 1880s - Unknown )
The Calpe Hunt
This is THE great institution of Gibraltar and the reason can be easily understood when the few opportunities for exercise . . on the Rock itself are taken into consideration . . . The noble sport of fox-hunting, so dear to Englishmen, is here maintained in its fullest integrity . . .
This is followed by a long history of Calpe Hunt - the prefix Royal was yet to come. ( see LINK )
At first gunfire all gates of the Garrison are closed, the wicket of the New Mole is, however opened for ingress and egress of officers of the army and navy (British or foreign), gentlemen of the Yacht Clubs and persons granted special permission up to 1 a.m.
No inhabitant was allowed to be in the streets after midnight except those having a permit from the Police Magistrate. Permits for civilians to ascend the Rock, sketch on the Rock, and visit the upper Galleries had to be obtained from the Assistant Military Secretary. Fishing for civilians was only allowed in Rosia, the New Mole, and Eastern Beach up to Sandy Bay. Shooting was only allowed in the back of the Rock and only for officers of the Army and Navy.
Officers of the Garrison
The Governor -The Right Honourable Robert Cornelis, Baron Napier of Magdala . . the Convent, Summer residence; The Cottage, Europa.
His personal staff included
Lieutenant Colonel A.R. Lempriere .R.E - housed in Rock Cottage
Captain Hon R Napier ADC - the Convent
Major G.J. Gilbard ADC - Secretary's Lane
Lord Napier of Magdala presenting Colours at The Alameda Parade ( 1880 The Graphic )
Others mentioned were;
Colonel F. R. Solly Flood of Permit fame was Assistant Adjutant General and lived in Cathedral Square.
The Commanding officer of the Royal Engineers, Major-General T. Gallwey lived in Engineer House.
On the Navy side
Capt W.H. Edye - Senior Naval Officer and Superintendent lived in the Mount.
Chief Justice - Sir William H. Doyle.
Colonial Secretary - Major-General Robert. S. Baynes
Superintendent of the Gibraltar Government Telegraph - Miss Creswell.
The very first non-British civilian appears as:
Dr. Joseph Baggetto - Assistant Surgeon Civil Hospital.
Roman Catholic Vicar Apostolic - The right Rev. John Baptist Scandella
The Exchange Committee
Chairman -Francis Francia, Dept and Treasurer - Michael J. Coll, Secretary - A. Mosley
Members; Peter Amigo, Yentob Bergel, M.H. Bland, Benjamin Carver, Thomas G. French, William Glassford, Lewis F. Imossi, N.H. Peacock, W.H. Smith, W.A. Thomson
The Sanitary Commission
Chairman - Paul A. Larios, Secretary - Major G. F. Stehelin
Non-British members were: Peter Amigo, Francis Balestrino, Arthur Carrara, James Galleano
The really palmy days for the trade of Gibraltar, we fear are gone forever for although the commercial transactions are still large and important, they have greatly fallen since the days of steam . . .
In 1822 and 1824 the value of inports of cotton and woollen manufactures alone amounted to a million and a quarter of money, but from that year the trade declined. The number of shipping has enormously increased, but this is due to the extension of mercantile transactions all through the Mediterranean, for formerly in the days of sailing vessels Gibraltar formed the great entrepot for goods which were intended for distribution not only along the neighbouring coasts but to the remotest corners of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Now steam and ships of larger tonnage carry cargoes direct to the port of destination without transhipment. Gibraltar, therefore, as a station of commercial importance has declined, but as a coaling station and a port for the protection and convenience of the mercantile marine trading with the Mediterranean, Spain and Morocco, it is more than ever of importance.
Stones from the Lines
A great deal of stone was brought into Gibraltar and used in building; the houses at the corner of Gunner's Parade and Engineers Lane and two large houses in Waterport Street on the right hand side below the Post Office being among those erected from this material.
On the ruins were erected what was formerly a collection of squalid houses, with two barracks for Spanish troops; but within the last two or three years houses of much better pretension have been erected on the sand, with some cafe's, a large church, a market, and a bull ring; and the place is spreading extensively, the inhabitants, now numbering thousands, where formerly they were only hundreds, and the foundations of the old forts still being found most useful as quarries of cut stone.
Several handsome villas have recently been erected. There is also a cock-fighting establishment, which is largely patronised, particularly on Sundays. The inhabitants . . . more than 3000 of them, from the Lines and San Roque, coming into Gibraltar daily.
The town is encompassed with gardens although the soil would not strike a stranger as likely to be fertile. Quantities of vegetables and fruit find their way into Gibraltar from these gardens which extend almost to the foot of the Queen of Spain's Chair . . .
Queen of Spain's Chair
The cross at the summit was placed there about 1864 by a Jesuit Missionary Padre Ricardo.
Rock from the ruins of the Spanish Lines ( 1870s - George Washington Wilson )